Day 2 :
University of La Laguna, Spain
Time : 09:00-09:30
Jacob Lorenzo-Morales studied Biology at the University of La Laguna where he earned a degree in biology in health, molecular and marine branch in 2001. He entered the Department of Parasitology, Ecology and Genetics that year, as a student of third cycle for the realization of his doctoral thesis on free-living amoebae. In 2003 he graduated as Diploma in Molecular Oncology. In June 2006, he defended his doctoral thesis with European Mention and qualified with distinction cum laude. After this stage, began his postdoctoral career at the Centre for Integrative Physiology, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Edinburgh. He has published 46 articles on parasitology in international journals indexed in the JCR and four book chapters (two international). As Scientific Secretary participated in the last two editions of the International Congresses of free-living amoebae (Free-living amoebae Meeting ; FLAM FLAM 2009 and 2011) and has served as editor of the journal Experimental Parasitology in 2010. He has participated in several projects funded research MINECO and the Canary Islands Government and private entities. Recently, in 2012 he obtained a Ramón y Cajal contract, joining with him to the University Institute of Tropical Diseases and Public Health of the Canary Islands, where, at present, performed their research in the laboratory of free-living amoebae led. He is the current secretary of the National Association of Researchers Ramon Y Cajal (ANIRC).
Free-Living amoebae present a few genera that are able to act as opportunistic pathogens and have been recognized as causative agents of Lethal Encephalitis and Amoebic Keratitis. Among them Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba species infection cases are dramatically rising worldwide. No standardized diagnostic tools and a lack of fully effective anti-amoebic Agents are of high concern. Regarding therapy against these amoebae, the existence of a highly resistant cyst stage in the amoebic life cycle is the main obstacle in the development of fully effective therapeutic agents. In this speech, the experience and most interesting cases gathered in our laboratory in TB recent years regarding diagnosis and treatment are presented.
- Track 5: Clinical Aspects of Bacterial Infections
Track 6: Epidemiology, Emerging Infectious Diseases and Public Response Planning
Track 7: Medical Microbiology - From Benchtop to Clinic
Location: Melia Meeting 1 & 2
Ashraf M. Ahmed
King Saud University, Saudi Arabia
Anthrax Reference Centre of Italy, Italy
King Saud University, Saudi Arabia
Title: Bacterial challenge in the control measures of mosquito-borne diseases: The battle against mosquito vectors
Time : 10:30-10:50
Prof. Ahmed has completed his PhD from Keele University, UK, on 2002 and has ongoing Research Fellowship at Keele from 2004 until now, and Fellow of the Roial Society, UK, in 2004. He is a Professor of Medical Entomology at Zoology Department at El-Minia University, Egypt, (currently at King Saud University, Saudi Arabia). His current research interest is “mosquito immunity and biocontrol”, aiming at utilizing the immune response of mosquito vectors against mosquito-borne disease agents, and biological agents in the biocontrol measures against mosquito vectors. He has successfully achieved several grants for research projects, and got two currently ongoing granted projected (1.6 million Saudi Riyals each). One grant is for isolating native mosquito Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria with enhanced larvicidal activities for use in the battle against mosquito vectors in Saudi Arabia. The other grant is for isolating immune peptides from honey-bees for use as natural antibiotic against the American Foal Broad disease (AFB) that threatens the global Apiary industry. He had successfully monitored undergraduate, postgraduate students and research scholars. His academic output consists of more than 26 papers in reputed journals, membership of several Scientific societies, attended several local, national & international conferences and invited for main talks in many international conferences.
Malaria, kills several millions annually worldwide and is transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes. The recently evolved problem in the human battle against malaria is the pesticide resistance of the vector and the rapid spread of multiple anti-malarial drug-resistance of malaria parasite. Great efforts are currently being done to utilize the vector immune system (refractoriness) in this battle. This strategy is being seriously tested regardless of the concomitant reproductive cost, the price of immune induction that must be paid by the vector. This, in fact, may reduce the importance of this immune-based control strategy in the battle against such mosquito-borne diseases. In spite of the research emphasis on the use of transgenic pathogen-refractory mosquitoes, insecticides are still the main method for controlling mosquito vectors, although being environmental pollutants and facing vector resistance that now threatening the effective life of these chemical compounds. Thus, recent studies have refocused interest on mosquitocidal bacteria as useful eco-friend alternatives to conventional insecticides, suggesting them as bio-control candidates in the human battle against mosquito-borne diseases. Yet, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) faced no resistance from insect host due to both the interactions among its multiple toxins and their respective receptors in mosquito midgut, and it is likely that these multiple intermolecular interactions are the major reasons for the absence of passive resistance to Bt in mosquitoes. This talk will discuss these scenarios in terms of the costs of vector immune-control strategy, Bt mosquitocidal mechanisms and new Bt isolates with enhanced mosquitocidal toxicity.
Emanuele Campese was born on 19th May 1985. In 2012 he got a Master’s degree in Environmental Biology at the Faculty of Biology of the University of Bari. He participated in several courses and workshops. In December 2013 he won a grant at the Department of the National Reference Center for Anthrax at the Istituto Zooprofilattico of Puglia and Basilicata. Main fields of his research activities are the development and improvement of techniques for the isolation of Bacillus anthracis from soil and molecular epidemiology of anthrax in developing countries. He is author and co-author of scientific papers published on international journals and conference communications.
Anthrax, whose causative agent is Bacillus anthracis, is a non-contagious infectious disease that affects several animal species, the human one included. Domestic and wild ruminants represent the most susceptible categories. The bacterial agent has the characteristic of producing spores that can survive in the environment for several decades. Anthrax in Albania is an endemic disease characterized by few outbreaks involving a very low number of animals. Nineteen samples of soil coming from burial sites and 11 strains of Bacillus spp isolated from died animals of different districts of Albania were examined. The analysis of soil samples revealed that 11 of them were contaminated with anthrax spores, while only 8 strains were confirmed as Bacillus anthracis. The analysis of CanSNPs showed that all isolates belong to lineage A major subgroup A.Br.008/009 (Trans-Eurasian or TEA strains). The MLVA test at 15 loci showed three different genotypes: Albania GT/1, Albania GT/2 and Albania GT/3. Two distinct genotypes (Albania GT/2 and GT/3) were found in the same burial site in the district of Kukës. All the genotypes are genetically very similar to each other, which confirms the hypothesis that all of them are the results of the evolution of a local common ancestral strain. However it is not excluded that in the course of further investigation, strains belonging to other lineages can be found, as it has been observed in Italy, where, in addition to the dominant genotype TEA, there are ecological niches of B.Br.CNEVA and A.Br.005/006 in the regions Northern Italy.
University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia
Time : 11:10-11:30
Arwa has completed her PhD at the age of 28 years from Queensland University of Technology, Australia. She is currently holding a position as an assistant professor at the University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia. She has published 5 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of repute.
The overuse of antibiotics especially in children is becoming one of the most important public health issues worldwide. This study aims to assess the factors underlying the parental use of antibiotics for children in Saudi Arabia. This is a cross-sectional study design. 1104 Parents (52% were mothers) of children younger than 12 years old were recruited from schools parental meetings in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Ordinal logistic regression was used to identify the factors influencing the parental use of antibiotics in children. Risk factors considered included parents’ demographic information, child health-related information, along with the PAPA scales, a validated instrument that measures parents’ knowledge and beliefs, behaviours, adherence, seeking information, and awareness about antibiotic resistance. There is a high association between the frequency of cold episodes and the number of antibiotics used for the youngest child in the family during the previous year. Three parent-related psychosocial aspects appeared to be significantly associated with the parents’ tendency to use an antibiotic in their children: Knowledge and beliefs, behaviors, and seeking health-related information. Also, parent’s geographical background is associated with their use of antibiotics. The strong association between the number of cold incidence and the amount of antibiotics used suggests an evidence for antibiotic misuse in Saudi Arabia. In addition, to stronger regulations relating to dispensing antibiotics, the Saudi government should implement public health interventions aimed at advocating parents to appropriate use of antibiotics, and the potential dangers in their misuse.
Dar ALuloom University, Saudi Arabia
Time : 11:50-12:10
Mahasen Wadi completed the PhD from AL Neelain University , Medical Microbiology. Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences 2010 Khratoum Sudan. MSc. University of Khartoum, Sudan. Medical Microbiology & Pharmacology 1987. She joined work at Dar ALUloom University, College of Medicine, Riyadh , Saudi Arabia August 2014, She Worked at the central research laboratory Khartoum , Sudan. She joined work at King Saud University, Saudi Arabia, Riyadh 1988, Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, and Medical Microbiology. She worked in the area of Bee Honey as a natural antimicrobial product. She published a numbers of papers in reputed journals and Participated in many Internationals and national conferences. She issued a patent research about the antimicrobial activity of Sudanese bee honey. She attended many workshops and seminars. Awarded certificate of prestigious Author for the journal of Bacteriology &Parasitology 2011. Awarded a medal on participating in workshop at King Saud University Saudi Arabia 2011. Awarded many appreciation and thanks certificate in scientific activities. Member of many international associations: German Apitherapy Society, American Apitherapy Society, International Bee Research Association, European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Disease ESCMID and Sudanese Veterinary Association. She served as reviewer of various journals.
Honey is recognized as an effective topical treatment of burns and wounds. In many cases it is being used with success on infections not responding to standard antibiotic and antiseptic therapy. Fifteen samples of bee honey from different localities in Sudan were tested against five standard bacterial strains; Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, representing Gram positive bacteria, and Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeurginosa representing Gram–negative bacteria. All honey samples exerted inhibitory effects on both Gram-positive and Gram negative organisms. The clinical isolates obtained from infected wounds of twelve hospitalized patients at Omudrman Teaching Hospital, showed seven Pseudomonas and five Staphylococcus according to the cultural, microscopically and biochemical characteristics. All honey samples exerted inhibitory effects against the clinical isolates. Daily applications of honey on septic wounds, chronic wounds, ulcers and pyogenic abscess of the twelve hospitalized patients, gave favorable results, typified by promotion of granulation tissue and epithelization of the infected wounds.
Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Iran
Title: Effect of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin alone or in combination with N-acetylcysteine on biofilm-producing Enterococcus faecalis: Contaminated root canals of extracted human teeth
Time : 14:45-15:05
Rashid Ramazanzadeh is a Faculty of Medicine at Cellular & Molecular Research Center and Microbiology Department, Kurdistan University of Medical Science, Iran
Introduction: Biofilm producing-Enterococcus faecalis remains a major challenge in the disinfection of an infected root canal system. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the antibacterial effect of ciprofloxacin (CIP), levofloxacin (LEV) and their combination with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in root canals infected with E. faecalis biofilms. Methods: Ninety one single root teeth were prepared. The antimicrobial effectiveness of seven-day intra canal medication with increasing concentrations (MIC to 1000MIC) of calcium hydroxide (CaOH2), CIP, LEV, CIP plus NAC (8 mg/ml) and LEV plus NAC was evaluated using the roots infected with E. faecalis for 30 days. Colony-forming unit (CFU) counting was performed. Biofilm formation and structural changes were monitored using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: All the chemotherapeutic agents were significantly more effective than CaOH2 (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between combined treatment with NAC and single antibiotic treatments (P>0.05) except for LEV plus NAC which showed significantly higher reduction in CFU/ml than LEV at concentrations of 50 MIC and above (P<0.05). The effectiveness of the antibiotics was significantly positively correlated with their concentrations (r>0.8; P=0.000). SEM examination confirmed the formation of mature biofilms and a complete accordance between reductions in CFU/ml and destruction of biofilm structures was found. Conclusions: The local application of CIP and LEV and in vitro synergism of LEV and NAC led to more antimicrobial efficacy than CaOH2 against E. faecalis biofilms in root canals of extracted human teeth.
Liaqat Ali Chaudhry completed MBBS from King Edward Medical College university Lahore1981. He completed his post-graduation in Diploma in Tuberculosis & Chest Diseases -Punjab University Lahore-Pakistan, MCPS from College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan and MRCP, FRCP from The Royal College of Physicians Dublin-Ireland. He worked as house physician, Registrar, Assistant professor at King Edward Medical College Lahore, 1982-1987. Later he joined MOH of Saudi Arabia worked as Specialist Physicians chest specialist on Feb-1988, Consultant Pulmonologist and Chief of Tuberculosis Center, Dept. of Internal Medicine & Chest diseases Dammam medical complex and Honorary Associate & Professor Dammam Medical University, Eastern Province K. Saudi Arabia – 2011 and Chairman Internal Medicine & Consultant Invasive.
1- Case Report A 35-year-old immuno-competent male with open pulmonary tuberculosis associated with extra-ordinary extensive extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. 2- Milliary Tuberculosis with Unusual Paradoxical Response at 3 Weeks of Antituberculous Treatment. 7071/CR/10 Q3/22/01 Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan 2012, Vol. 22 (01): 0 3- Paraplegia is not a diagnosis: Spinal tuberculosis deserves a place on the clinical radar screen: Awakening call to clinicians. 4- Clinical consequences of non-compliance with directly observed therapy short course (DOTS): Story of a recurrent defaulter.