Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 4th International Congress on Bacteriology and Infectious Diseases San Antonio, Texas, USA.

Day 2 :

Keynote Forum

Kei Amemiya

US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, USA

Keynote: Host-pathogen interactions by clinical strains of Burkholderia pseudomallei in a murine model of melioidosis

Time : 10.00AM

OMICS International Bacteriology 2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker Kei Amemiya photo
Biography:

Dr. Kei Amemiya is a Principal Investigator in the Bacteriology Division at the US Army Medical Reseach Institute of Infectious Diseases. He has been at USAMRIID since 1999 and has been involved in developing vaccine candidates against plague, glanders, and melioidosis. His interest has been in studying the host’s immune response to the pathogen and vaccines in small and large animal models. Before coming to USAMRIID, he was at the National Institutes of Health and Georgetown University, where he was studying the host response to bacterial and viral pathogens or autoimmune diseases in humans.

Abstract:

Melioidosis, which is caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is endemic in South-East Asia and Northern Austrialia, but it is not well known in other parts of the world. It is the third leading cause of disease in the endemic area behind tuberculosis and HIV. Pneumonia is the most frequent clinical presentation observed in melioidosis patients, and diabetes is the most common risk factor for the disease. The high susceptibility of these latter patients to infection by B. pseudomallei is an enigma that appears to be associated with an immunocompromised immune system, but it does not make HIV/AIDS patients more susceptible to melioidosis. One problem with diagnosis of melioidosis is that the clinical presentation may mimic other chronic infections like tuberculosis. There appears to be many different strains of B. pseudomallei that can cause melioidosis, and they may display different clinical presentations that make diagnosis more difficult. In addition, the pathogen tends to be highly drug resistant that makes treatment of the disease uncertain. Because of these inherent complications, we have been evaluating different human clinical isolates of B. pseudomallei in murine models of melioidosis to characterize their virulence. We see two different types of host response to infection by the strains of B. pseudomallei, depending on the strain of mice used in the studies. BALB/c mice are more easily acutely infected by the pathogen, while C57BL/6 mice tend to be much more resistant to infection. These differences in the host will be presented as well as the host’s response to the pathogen in chronically infected mice.

  • Track 3: Bacterial Identification Methods
    Track 7: Veterinary Bacteriology
    Track 8: Natural Microbial Defenses and Immunity
Speaker

Chair

Francis J Castellino

University of Notre Dame USA

Speaker

Co-Chair

Kei Amemiya

US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, USA

Speaker
Biography:

Qingshan Huang has completed his PhD from Fudan University and postdoctoral studies from Fudan University Life School. He is an associate professor at Fudan University. He is interested in the development of anti-infective and anti-tumor protein agents by using molecular biology, cell biology, bioinformatics and other approaches. He has published more than 50 papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:

Lysins are murein hydrolases encoded by bacteriophage and can kill bacteria effectively. To obtain highly effective antibacterial lysins, we need to systematically analyse the activity of its catalytic domains. The coding sequence of the catalytic domain of Ply187 (CHAPPly187) was synthesized and constructed into a recombinant expression plasmid to generate pET28a-CHAPPly187, which was transformed into a BL21(DE3) E. coli strain. The recombinant CHAPPly187 protein was produced by IPTG induction, and purified by a two-step method, reaching >95 percent purity. Compared with the catalytic domain of lysostaphin (CATLysn), CHAPPly187 showed similar antibacterial potency and the activity was similarly affected by a series of metal ions. CHAPPly187 however showed a much broader antibacterial spectrum, exhibited optimal activity in a wider range of the pH, and could tolerate higher ionic strength. The research work will help to design potent recombinant lysins against drug resistant bacteria.

Speaker
Biography:

Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub has completed his PhD in veterianry Microbiology in 1998 from Unievrsity of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan and postdoctoral studies from Institute of Animal Health, Compton, UK in 2008. He is the Professor of Microbiology at University of veterianry and Animal Sciences of Lahore. He has published more than 50 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of repute. He is a Senior Member of the University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences Lahore where his works focuses on promoting student skills and guide them to be a good researcher. He serves as one of the program’s lead trainers.

Abstract:

Calf diarrhea among dairy herds in Pakistan is a major cause of neonatal calf mortality causing immense economic losses in terms of high morbidity and mortality. It is a complex disease caused by several types of bacteria especially Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). In Pakistan, little information is available about ETEC sequence data and relatedness with geographically distributed strains. In present study from ten districts of Punjab province rectal feces were collected from healthy and diarrheic (n=400) cattle and buffalo calves of age <3months. These samples were processed for bacterial isolation, biochemcial identification and sunsequently sequencing of 16S rRNA and K99 fimbrial gene of ETEC. The results indicate that the prevalence of E. coli was significantly high in both cattle and buffalo diarrheic calves (P< 0.00) followed by Salmonella species. Klebsiella pneumoniae was significantly found from all healthy cattle calves (P< 0.002), followed by Enterobacter aerogenes (P= 0.005). Whereas, in diarrheic buffalo calves, Enterobacter aerogenes (P< 0.021) followed by Klebsiella pneumonia (P< 0.048) and Enterobacter cloacae (P< 0.036) were found while no isolation of Proteus mirabilis. The characterization and phylogenetic analysis of K99 gene and 16SrRNA indicates that the local strain has evolved from the strains of geographically diverse regions and is distantly related. This difference in genetic makeup of local ETEC may depict the possibility of recombination within a clonal structure. Additional studies are required to ascertain the spatial distribution of bacterial pathogens of calf diarrhea and control measures to reduce the morbidity and mortality in calves population of Pakistan.

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Gupta is currently pursuing his research in the laboratory of Dr. Bernard Arulanandam at the South Texas Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas at San Antonio, SA, TX, USA. Prior to joining Dr. Arulanandam’s laboratory, Dr. Gupta received his Doctoral degree from the Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS), Pilani, and National Institute of Pathology, New Delhi, India in 2009. His doctoral studies focused on investigating host immunity in cohorts of Chlamydia infected women with reproductive sequelae. Dr. Gupta’s expertize as a clinical immunologist has been further enhanced through his current research on the role of host immune factors and genital chlamydial infections in animal models including mice and guinea pigs. His current focus includes investigating the role of host factors including microRNAs in regulating anti-chlamydial immunity.

Abstract:

Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is the leading cause of human bacterial sexually transmitted infections. In humans, genital Ct infection lead to reproductive sequelae including fibrosis, tissue damage and inflammation. Although molecular events leading to genital tissue exacerbation and tissue remodeling are unclear, early stage host immune responses may lead to collateral damage in the form of upper genital pathological sequelae. Given that immune responses are regulated by non-coding RNA species namely microRNAs (miRs), the objective of this study was to determine signatures miRs and decipher mechanistic contribution of selected miRs in early stage immune responses and subsequent development of pathology. Using the murine model of genital Ct, C57BL/6 wild type (WT) were intravaginally infected with Ct and cellular infiltrates (flow cytometry), miRs and putative targets (real-time PCR and mass spectrometry) and genital pathology was analyzed. Ex vivo genital cell cultures manipulated with miR agonists and antagonists were used for gain and loss of function validation. We found Ct infection in C57BL/6 genital tract significantly regulated selected miRs at early stages of infection post challenge. Amongst these, miRs-125b, -182, -214 and 30c were significantly altered and in vitro knockdown analyses with specific inhibitors resulted in increase in Ct infectivity corroborating our in vivo findings. Additionally, in vivo miR-214 was observed to regulate intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and neutrophil infiltration affecting development of upper genital pathology in an IL17A dependent manner. These findings provides evidence for early stage regulation of immune responses via host miRs affecting development of genital pathology.

Speaker
Biography:

Brunilís Burgos-Rivera completed her PhD in Genetics from the University of Georgia in 2012. Currently, she is a microbiologist at the Pertussis and Diphtheria Laboratory at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) working as a contractor. She has served as the Laboratory Coordinator for the Latin American Pertussis Project, a collaboration between CDC, Sabin Vaccine Institute, Pan American Health Organization, and the Ministries of Health in select Latin American Countries to strengthen pertussis surveillance and diagnostics in the Region. More recently, she has been selected as a Fellow to the CDC Laboratory Leadership Service, Class of 2016

Abstract:

Although rare, macrolide resistance in Bordetella pertussis has been reported in some countries more frequently since 2012. We evaluated current U.S. B. pertussis isolates for susceptibility to erythromycin and azithromycin and optimized a PCR assay for testing erythromycin resistance directly on nasopharyngeal specimens (NPS). 1208 B. pertussis isolates collected 2011-2015 from 7 states with enhanced pertussis surveillance, 2 states with large pertussis outbreaks, and 6 states with sporadic cases were tested for susceptibility to erythromycin and azithromycin by disk diffusion. Plates were incubated for 7 days to check for the heterogeneous resistance phenotype. In addition, 54 DNA NPS extracts from 6 states were tested by a PCR targeting the V domain of the 23S rRNA gene, which harbors the A2047G mutation conferring macrolide resistance. PCR primers were designed using the Chinese B. pertussis vaccine strain as a reference. Two PCR reactions were performed for each DNA extract allowing for the identification of susceptibility patterns by gel electrophoresis. All isolates were susceptible to both macrolides, with zones of inhibition of at least 45 mm after 3 days. No isolates produced the heterogeneous phenotype after 7 days. Out of the 54 DNA extracts tested, 48 were erythromycin susceptible by PCR. Six DNA extracts yielded no PCR products, attributed to DNA degradation or poor specimen quality. No DNA extracts harbored the mutation that confers macrolide resistance. Although macrolide resistance in B. pertussis does not appear to be a current problem in the U. S., systematic monitoring is crucial. Testing NPS by PCR will allow us to quickly identify resistant cases whether or not an isolate is available.

Nadia Mukhtar

University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Paksitan

Title: Antimicrobial Resistance Genes In Salmonella Isolates From Poultry Drinking Water
Speaker
Biography:

Ms. Nadia Mukhtar is a PhD candidate in Department of Microbiology at University of Veterianry and Animal Sciences of Lahore. Currently working as Instructor Microbology at Virtual University of Pakistan. She has published more than 10 papers in reputed journals. She has won a Scientific Exchange Award as the part of AAAS BMENA Scientific Exchange Program, supported by a grant from the U.S. Department of State, 2013. She got a training on Metagenomic investigations of respiratory infections of Sheep at Harvil’s Lab, PennState University, USA, 2014. She got a certificate from Universite de Lauzanne in a Pasteur International Workshop on Surveillance and Control of Rabies Phnom Penh, at Institute Pasteur Du Cambodia, 2015.

Abstract:

Salmonella species are among the most common causes of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and food animals specially poultry are important reservoirs of this bacteria. In recent years, due to increase in the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance spp. of Salmonella, fatality rate for Salmonellosis is increasing significantly. In the context of exploring the emergence of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella species, present study was planned. Salmonella isolation was performed by collecting samples from poultry rearing and slaughtering areas with recovery rate about 29.3 %. Bacterial colonies of red color with black center were appeared on the XLD agar plates and then confirmed by biochemical tests. Then multi-drug resistance of the isolates was examined by disk diffusion method. Resistant samples were further analyzed for the detection of various tet genes (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetD, tetG). PCR confirmed the presence of tetA in all the Salmonella positive samples while tetB was present in combination with tetA gene only in 16 samples. No amplification of tetC, tetD and tetG was examined. Our results illustrate that commonly used antibiotics, especially Tetracycline is showing decline in efficacy due to increasing antimicrobial resistance in locally isolated Salmonella from poultry samples. These findings indicate that local population of Salmonellacontains the tetA alone or in combination with tetB gene and are likely played an important role in transmission of antimicrobial resistance determinants among Salmonella strains.

Speaker
Biography:

With 22 years old, Jesús Mario Iracheta Villarreal has sarted a Microbiology Master in the Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León. He has a Químico Bacteriólogo Parasitólogo degree from the same university and its planning on doing a PhD in the future. His interests are the microbiology in general and the micribiota of environments

Abstract:

Pathogens diseases have increased over the years due to the emergence of drug resistant strains. The use of antagonistic microorganisms against these resistant organisms is an alternative to combat infectious diseases that cause in human beings. Five microorganisms isolated from algae and clams in marine ecosystems from the state of Sonora, were studied with the cross streak method to evaluate the antagonistic activity against ATCC strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The microorganisms that had antagonistic activity were identified by molecular biology using the 16S rRNA. The strains that showed the best activity were antagonistic microorganisms from algae, numbered 30R and 39, identifying them as bacteria of the genus Bacillus. Strains numbered 35 and 44, showed only antagonistic activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus respectively and identifying them as Staphylococcus bacteria. There has been reported various microorganisms with antagonistic activity in the marine environments, and bacteria from the genus Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Actinobacteria being evaluated against pathogens. Various reports show antimicrobial activity of microbiota isolated in Mexican ecosystems. Bacteria isolated from the state of Sonora are an option for alternatives against pathogens for man.

Speaker
Biography:

Mohamed K. Fakhr, is currently an Associate Professor of Molecular Microbiology in the Department of Biological Science at the University of Tulsa, USA. After obtaining his Ph.D. from Oklahoma State University in 2002, Dr. Fakhr, moved to North Dakota State University where he worked as a Postdoctoral Research Associate then a Research Assistant Professor at the Department of Veterinary and Microbiological Sciences. In 2008, Dr. Fakhr moved to Tulsa, where he currently runs an active research program in the area of Molecular Typing and Detection of Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens alongside exploring the mechanisms by which these foodborne pathogens develop resistance to antimicrobials.

Abstract:

The presence of foodborne pathogens on retail meats always has been a public health concern. Advances in the detection and molecular typing of foodborne pathogens are always necessary to cope with their evolution, fitness and adaptation. Antimicrobial resistance of foodborne pathogens is at an alarming rate because of the extensive use of antimicrobials in the feed of poultry and other food production animals. Understanding the mechanisms by which these pathogens are resisting antimicrobials is critical in developing interference strategies to reduce such undesired resistance. Research in my laboratory at the University of Tulsa has been focused on the detection and molecular typing of foodborne bacterial pathogens including Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus aureus in retail meats and on exploring the molecular mechanisms of their antimicrobial and arsenic resistance. Of a special interest to our research group is the molecular characterization of foodborne bacterial plasmids and the investigation of their roles not only in antimicrobial resistance but also in virulence and persistence in the various steps of slaughtering and retail processing. This talk will summarize our interesting valuable research findings in the last few years and will also elaborate on the use of next-generation whole genome sequencing in characterizing Campylobacter large plasmids. Uncovering a possible role for these large plasmids in Campylobacter virulence will be also discussed.

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Goc obtained her M.S. and Ph.D. from the Jagiellonian University, Cracow, Poland. She conducted her postdoctoral training at Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, and the University of Georgia, Athens, GA. She also worked as a Research Biologist at the VA Medical Center, Augusta, GA. Currently, as a Head of Infectious Diseases Division at Dr. Rath Research Institute, Santa Clara CA, she leads a Lyme disease project. Dr. Goc has published over 30 peer-reviewed publications, two book chapters, and has presented her research at numerous national and international scientific meetings. She is also an active member on one editorial board and the recipient of several national and international awards.

Abstract:

Lyme disease is a multi-systemic bacterial infection transmitted by ticks. Because LD has emerged as the most common vector-borne disease worldwide and has been associated with a significant health care concern after treatment with conventional antibiotic therapies, new treatment approaches are needed. Naturally derived substances that could work synergistically to display higher efficacy compared to the individual components may serve as such resource to combat both active and latent forms of Borrelia sp. that cause Lyme disease. Using checkerboard assay, we investigated the anti-borreliae reciprocal interactions of phytochemicals and micronutrients against two species of Borrelia, selected as prevalent causes of Lyme disease in the US and Europe. Moreover, we tested them in form of defined mixture in vitro and in vivo. Tested combinations of polyphenols and fatty acids revealed synergistic or additive effects against active and/or dormant forms Borrelia sp. Moreover, define mixture of theses polyphenols and fatty acids was effective in Lyme disease animal model. In summary, the results show that specific composition of phytochemicals may play a supporting role in combating Borrelia sp. and serve either as an adjunct or alternative treatment for Lyme disease.

Speaker
Biography:

Xuhu Mao is a full professor of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology in Third Military Medical University. He has been the Chief of Department since September 2013. His research specifically focuses on understanding the interaction between pathogens and host. He has published more than 30 papers in reputed journals, which deal with the molecular mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis. Qian Li is a third year PhD student in Third Military Medical University, whose major is the Microbiology. Currently, She is studying in Dan Luo’s lab of Cornell University, as a “jointly-supervised” PhD student, centering on applying DNA nanotechnology in point-of-care pathogen detection.

Abstract:

Burkholderia pseudomallei is a notorious pathogen of human meloidosis, which is classically characterized by pneumonia and multiple abscesses with a high mortality and relapse rate. Autophagy as one of the earliest defense responses encountered by intracelluar pathogens, is a process that engulfs and delivers intracellular bacteria for lysosomal degradation. Recent studies indicate that B. pseudomallei can survive inside mammalian cell lines owning to its ability to evade autophagy in an active behavior. However, the associated mechanisms remain to be established. In our study, in order to reveal the underlying mechanisms, levels of mRNA and miRNAs in human lung epithelial A549 cells during B. pseudomallei infection were measured using microarray assay. We showed that ATG10, an important regulator of autophagy, was downregulated during B. pseudomallei infection in A549 cells. Furthermore, overexpression of ATG10 promoted to eliminate intracellular B. pseudomallei by enhancing the process of autophagy. As a potential mechanistic explanation for this observation, we demonstrated that three novel miRNAs, MIR4458, MIR4667-5p and MIR4668-5p, bound to the 3’-untranslated region of ATG10, by different time course and spatial manner. Upregulation of these miRNAs reduced the level of ATG10 and inhibited autophagy, leading to increased numbers of intracellular B. pseudomallei. These results suggest that infection with B. pseudomallei upregulates miRNAs to reduce expression of protein required for autophagy and autophagy response in lung epithelial cells.

Speaker
Biography:

Essam Badawy has completed his PhD Minia University, Egypt and Postdoctoral studies from Cairo University School of Medicine. He is the Director of Emergency Department, Hera General Hospital, JCI-Accredited Governmental Hospital, MOH, KSA. He is a Senior Consultant Internal Medicine & Professor of Internal Medicine & Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University. He has published more than 24 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member of repute.

Abstract:

Replacement therapy in critically ill patients with H1N1 infections. Objectives: Clarification of clinical characteristics and outcome of acute renal injury in patients with H1N1 pneumonia. Patients & Methods: 40 patients who were living in or visitors to Makkah region, admitted to the hospital and revealed confirmatory H1N1 infection, pneumonia and acute renal injury were submitted to real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). Severity of illness was assessed by using the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score and partial arterial O2 pressure to the fraction of inspired O2 on high flow oxygen mask (PaO2/FIO2). Another severity score related to the severity of pulmonary infiltrates (XR Chest score) was used and co-morbidities were recorded. Results: 77.5% of the patients had subjective fever, 72.5% chills, 97.5% cough, 90% fatigue, 82.5% headache, 80% nasal congestion, 70% sore throat, 85% myalgia, 40% ear pain, 37.5% nausea, 20% vomiting. Symptoms severity score of median 19 with range from 14-24. APACHEII score 26.3±9.7, SOFA score 9.7±3.8, MOD score 9±4. All patients had pneumonia confirmed radiologically with XR-chest score 13.4±3.6. The findings on chest radiographs were consisted with acute respiratory distress syndrome that required mechanical ventilation for 19 out of 40 patients, only 4 of them survived. Conclusion: Acute renal injury is an adding impact of increasing the mortality rate of H1N1 pneumonial patients and may be related directly to the infection by this virus or complication to it which may be explained by severe hypoxia secondary to severe acute lung injury, multi-organ dysfunction. A high mortality in middle and old-aged patients with underlying medical co-morbidities was associated with higher Symptoms Severity, APACHE II, SOFA, MODS and XRC scores.